Type 2 diabetes is one of the conditions most strongly influenced by body weight, since 90% of obese patients are diabetic. Metabolic surgery refers to the surgical treatment of type 2 diabetes, representing a new treatment option for this condition that until recently had been treated only through medication.
The concept of metabolic surgery evolved from bariatric surgery (gastric bypass), since it was noted that patients undergoing this procedure significantly improved their obesity related health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia.
The procedure consists in reducing gastric capacity and excluding food transit through the first portion of the small intestine, causing hormone and receptors change, which has a positive impact on glycemic control. It is important to mention that the antidiabetic effect of the metabolic surgery is primary, rather than the consequence of losing weight.
Unlike bariatric surgery, metabolic surgery can be performed in patients with any degree of obesity,including those with a BMI between 30 and 35 kg/m2 experiencing type 2 diabetes; since the main goal of this surgery is the treatment of type 2 diabetes rather than the treatment of obesity.
This procedure is performed through laparoscopy under general anesthesia. It lasts approximately 2.5 hours and requires two to three nights of hospital stay. The loss of the excess weight during the first year is about 90%